To answer the above question firstly we need to know what barrier protection systems are?
1. What are barrier protection systems?
Vital organs and biologic systems have developed specialized barriers to protect (eg from infections) but also allow nutrition through for growth and survival. The notable barriers are the blood brain barrier, blood gastrointestinal barrier (GBB), blood retinal barriers, blood placenta and blood testis barriers, the blood thymus barrier, and the blood–lung or airway barrier. Each of these barriers protects vulnerable and sensitive organs and systems (1). Selective permeability is important and accomplished though specialized cells, occludins, adherens, and claudins, for example.
The junctional proteins in the brain are similar to those of the small intestine. In the gut, the barriers are semipermeable, thus allowing efficient transport of nutrients across the, while excluding entry of potentially harmful small molecules and organisms. The exclusionary properties of the gastric and intestinal mucosa are referred to as the gastrointestinal blood barrier (2).
2. What is Leaky Gut and Leaky Barrier?
Food sensitivity and emerging toxins have been linked to inflammation and some individuals react to food and dietary proteins as pathogenic or antigenic, causing inflammation of the mucosal barrier and immune stress. The inflammation, comprised largely of cytokines, interleukins (IL)-8, and the pro-inflammatory cytokines; tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ, may play a role in this process and inflammation can induce changes in the expression and/or localization of tight junction proteins (1).
A key point to follow is what happens when the integrity of the intestinal blood barrier is compromised. It has the potential to affect a host of other organ systems, which can be problematic. Immune recruitment and an autoimmune response can destroy intestinal epithelial cells, which may lead to villous atrophy (3).
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), a non-invasive brain stimulation technique used to assess and monitor patients with celiac disease shows that “hyper-excitable celiac brain” can exist. These researchers show gluten-related excitatory and inhibitory synaptic excitability. TMS suggests there is a subclinical involvement of GABAnergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission (4). This was even found when celiac patients were asymptomatic, and suggests the brain and its excitation state, and perhaps permeability barriers, could be commonly affected through inflammation in this disease.
The innate immune response has been shown to increase zonulin, which is a modulator of intercellular tight junctions and trafficking of macromolecules important in tolerance and immune responses. Dysregulation of the zonulin pathway can increase the permeability of tight junctions and render individuals susceptible to possible autoimmune disorders, cancer, and inflammation (3).
If this resonated with you and you would like more information……
Write an email to our AdminHV@LittleSproutsChiropractic.com.au requesting “More Information on Leaky Gut please” if you would like to either ask us more questions or if you would like to access our comprehensive most up to date evidence based document on Non-Coeliac Gluten Sensitivity. We will send it out to you.
Do you or have you ever suffered with gut pain, bloating and abdominal pain, nausea, gastroesophageal reflux disease? Even symptoms including joint/muscle involvement, headache, anxiety, foggy mind, skin rash, dermatitis, fatigue and weakness and even numbness --- These are the most frequently reported symptoms stemming from a possibly common issue. This is an important article that could make the world of difference to you if you do have these things!
Over the past two decades, the incidence of diseases believed to be induced by the ingestion of wheat and related gluten-containing cereals, including rye and barley, has increased (1). Non-coeliac gluten/wheat sensitivity (NCG/WS) is a syndrome characterized by intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms occurring a few hours or days after the ingestion of gluten and wheat proteins in patients testing negative for coeliac disease and wheat allergy (2).
It has been established that other foods can cross-react with gluten. Antigens from other foods cross-react with various wheat antigens (3). If a subgroup of patients on a gluten-free diet does not show improvement in their GI or other symptoms, attention should be given to dairy and other cross-reactive foods, such as yeast, corn, oats, millet and rice, as shown in a recent study (3). The study also commented that some oat varieties contain avenin, which cross-reacts with wheat, barley, and rye. What this means in simple language is that foods can act potentially act like other foods that you may not have suspected.
Patients who complain of symptoms following bread and pasta ingestion should not eliminate gluten and wheat, but they should correctly undergo the diagnostic work-up to rule out Coeliac Disease (CD) and Wheat allergy (WA) (2). A self-diagnosis of gluten / wheat intolerance must be avoided since, once the elimination diet is begun, it is very difficult to reintroduce wheat to study the patient. Treatment with gluten / wheat withdrawal should be started only when there is a clear evidence that the patient can be affected by NCG/WS (2).
The first step of the diagnostic work-up for NCWS is based on the symptom assessment (scored from 1 as very mild to 10 as very severe) at baseline (when patients are still on a gluten/wheat-containing diet) and weekly for 6 weeks on gluten-free diet (GFD) by using the modified GSRS questionnaire. This is a Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) integrated with extraintestinal manifestations. A GFD-dependent symptom decrease of greater than 30% compared with baseline in at least three symptoms is regarded as a criterion to suspect NCWS (2).
Since NCGS at this time is a poorly defined condition with highly subjective symptoms, a common clinical approach of eliminating suspected symptom-inducing foods followed by clinician-supervised re-challenge with close symptom monitoring has been advocated. In the most up to date literature/evidence This may prove superior to other methods due to its ease of administration and being more informative (4).
If this resonated with you and you would like more information……
Write an email to our AdminHV@LittleSproutsChiropractic.com.au requesting “More Information on NCGS please” if you would like to either ask us more questions or if you would like to access our comprehensive most up to date evidence based document on NCGS. We will send it out to you.
.At age 0-2, the brain development of an infant towards a toddler undergoes a humongous change. Since the basic structure of the nervous system is already developed during pregnancy, it is only going to expand in volume and synapses to accommodate the flooding of information.
Research shows the volume of nerves grow just over double in the first year(1). It also shows there are massive growth in different parts of an infant cerebral cortex and cerebellum.(1)
During this period, babies are receiving a lot of information from sensory organs, such as eyes, nose and ears, learning and feeling their surroundings. But how?
They see, move, touch, listen and smell! In the study of anatomy, we found there are a few locations in our body which are rich with sensory nerve endings. In general their role is to help us feel, such as light touch and temperature. You might be able to guess one of the most sensitive part of your body is your finger tips, but interestingly our lips and tongue consist of numerous amount of nerve endings as well!(2). It help us distinguish small and important details E.g. taste and fine touch.
Therefore, we can infer the reason why babies like to put objects into their mouth, is because they are exploring and learning the world, utilising their most sensitive part of their body to gather more information and develop the nervous system. This stimulation also helps with integration of primitive reflexes.
A healthy nervous system is vital for brain development, especially for the infant. Little Sprouts Chiropractic provides a comprehensive chiropractic health check for you and your baby. Give us a call and see if we can help you.
1. Knickmeyer RC, Gouttard S, Kang C, Evans D, Wilber K, Smith JK, et al. A structural MRI study of human brain development from birth to 2 years. Journal of Neuroscience. 2008;28(47):12176-82.
2. Guinard J-X, Mazzucchelli R. The sensory perception of texture and mouthfeel. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 1996;7(7):213-9.
Given all the news in the media and a recent survey in regards to the future of chiropractic care with children being conducted. Have you ever thought about chiropractic care and infants? What are the experiences from the parents? Have benefits been noted? This is an article that may provide some insight.
“Infants are common users of chiropractic care” (1-3)
How are we to know if infants respond to chiropractic care? As it is difficult to ask the infant. The answer is with their loving mothers. Evidence suggests that mothers are reliable reporters of their infant’s behaviour, so it is them that are in the best position to provide insight into their child’s clinical situation. (4-6)
In a recent literature article, mothers were given an infant questionnaire, that has been tested for reliability and validity. It collected information about the infant and maternal impressions across several domains of their infant’s behaviour, including sleep, feeding, crying, range of motion of the neck and a few other factors. Difficulty in these areas represents threat to the health of the infant and public health because they are considered risk factors for early cessation of breast feeding, impaired infant-paternal bonding, parental abuse in the short term, behavioural issues, developmental delays and continued sleep difficulties in the long term. (7-14)
Although it is one of the first studies of its kind, being preliminary, subjective to the mother, and more studies need to be done. The infant’s care was reported by mothers who completed follow-up as effective, safe and cost-effective. (15)
“With infants being in their most vulnerable and developmental phases of their life, it is important to make sure their bodies are functioning at their optimum”
1)Hestbaek L, Jørgensen A, Hartvigsen J. A description of children and adolescents in Danish chiropractic practice: results from a nationwide survey. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2009;32(8):607-615.
(2) MillerJ.Demographicsurveyofpediatricpatientspresentingto a chiropractic teaching clinic. Chiropr Osteopat. 2010;18:33.
(3) Allen-Unhammer A, Willson FJH, Hestbaek L. Children and adolescents presenting to chiropractors in Norway: National Health Insurance data and a detailed survey. Chiropr Man Therap. 2016;24:29-38.
(4) Barr RG, Kramer MS, Boisjoly C, McVey-White L, Pless IB. Parental diary of infant cry and fuss behaviour. Arch Dis Child. 1988;63(4):380-387
(5) St. James-Roberts I, Hurry J, Bowyer J. Objective confirmation of crying durations in infants referred for excessive crying. Arch Dis Child. 1993;68(1):82-84.
(6) von Kries R, Kalies H, Papousek M. Excessive crying beyond 3 months may herald other features of multiple regulatory problems. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006;160(5):508-511.
(7) Miller AS, Huizinga B. PinksterM, Telford ACJ, ten Heggeler JM, Miller JE. Development and testing of a multidimensional parent reported outcome measure for common presenting complaints of infancy: the UK infant questionnaire. J Clin Chiropr Pediatr. 2016;15(3):1292-1300.
(8) Guyer J, Millward LJ, Berger I. Mothers’ breastfeeding experiences and implications for professionals. Br J Midwifery. 2012;20(10):724-733.
(9) Oldbury S, Adams K. The impact of infant crying on the parent-infant relationship. Community Pract. 2015;88(3): 29-34.
(10) Zeifman DM, St. James-Roberts I. Parenting the crying infant. Curr Opin Psychol. 2017;15:149-154.
(11) Johnson K. Reduced tummy time can slow motor development. Med Post. 2003;39(38):51.
(12) Schertz M, Zuk L, Zin S, Nadam L, Schwartz D, Bienkowski RS. Motor and cognitive development at one- year follow-up in infants with torticollis. Early Hum Dev. 2008;84(1):9-14.
(13) Smarius LJ, Strieder TG, Loomans EM, et al. Excessive infant crying doubles the risk of mood and behavioral problems at age 5: evidence for mediation by maternal characteristics. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2017;26(3):293-302.
(14) Lam P, Hiscock H, Wake M. Outcomes of infant sleep problems: a longitudinal study of sleep, behavior and maternal well-being. Pediatrics. 2003;111(3):e203-e207.
(15)Miller, J.E., Hanson, H.A., Hiew, M., Kwong, D.S.L.T., Mok, Z. and Tee, Y.H., 2019. Maternal Report of Outcomes of Chiropractic Care for Infants. Journal of manipulative and physiological therapeutics.